Configure and Route Efficiently with the Routing Information Protocol
by Hunter Gorman, on Sep 10, 2020 1:45:00 PM
Flow is important whether it comes to cash flow, traffic flow, or even data flow. To increase network productivity, finding the most efficient way to route data is key to remain effective in the network. What protocols do you use to efficiently route data within your network? If you have a small to medium sized network, you may find yourself using Routing Information Protocols (RIP). Though when looking more into large enterprise networks, RIP doesn't quite make the cut so the transition from a distance-vector protocol to a link state protocol (OSPF) may be necessary. Today, we will look at the benefits of RIP, a few basic RIP configurations on an ASR router, and a sneak peek into OSPF routing.
A Quick Look at RIP
The RIP is a classic distance-vector Interior Gateway Protocol designed to exchange information within an autonomous system of a small network. Its primary functions are to determine the most efficient way to route data within a network and prevent routing loops. By using distance-vector routing, it calculates the best path based on the direction and distance between routers. RIP prevents routing loops by limiting the number of 'hops' between the source and destination. Both the distance-vector routing and routing loop prevention use packets to forward information to appropriate routers. The distance-vector calculates the distance and direction of the packet while the routing loop prevention uses hops to record each time a packet is forwarded from one router to another.
RIP Version 1 (RIPv1) is a distance-vector protocol that is considered the easiest routing protocol to implement as compared to OSPF. As a Classful Routing Protocol, RIPv1 allows only contiguous blocks of hosts, subnets or networks to be represented by a single route, severely limiting its usefulness.
RIP Version 2 (RIPv2) is a Classless Routing Protocol because it sends information of subnet mask in its routing update, unlike Version 1. This version allows more information carried in RIP update packets, such as support for:
- Route summarizing
- Classless inter-domain routing
- Variable-length subnet masks
- Autonomous systems and the use of redistribution
- Multicast address for RIP advertisements
To highlight the autonomous systems and use of redistribution, redistribution is a process which allows exchanging routing information between different routing processes or from static information to routing process. RIPv2 multicasts the entire routing table to all adjacent routers at the address 188.8.131.52, whereas RIPv1 uses 255.255.255.255.
RIPng (RIP next generation) is an extension of RIPv2. This next generation Internet Protocol supports IPv6 using IPsec for authentication and exchanges routing information used to compute routes. RIPng is a UDP-based protocol and uses UDP port 521 and the multicast address FF02::9. Similar to the other two versions, the longest network path cannot exceed 15 hops.
|Default Administrative Distance|
|Routing Protocols||Administrative Distance|
|Static route out of an interface||0|
|Static route to next hop||1|
|EIGRP Summary Route||5|
|RIP version 1 and 2||120|
Put Your Skills to the Test
Before we get into the configurations, we have built a tool to help you test your skills or test protocols within a network. The virtual labs tool is targeted specifically to various tests, networks, and skills. You have the opportunity to dive into RIP along with routing protocols such as EIGRP, OSPF, BGP, DHCP, and more. Learn more about each lab here: CCIE MPLS Lab, CCNA Routing Lab, CCNP DMVPN Lab, CCNP/CCIE Route and Switch Lab.
- Enabling RIP in Cisco ASR
- Customizing RIP
- Control Routing Information
- Creating a Route Policy for RIP
- Configuring RIP Authentication Keychain
- RIP Show Commands
Enabling RIP in Cisco ASR (optional)
This task enables RIP routing and establishes a RIP routing process. Although you can configure RIP before you configure an IP address, no RIP routing occurs until at least one IP address is configured.
This task describes how to customize RIP for network timing and the acceptance of route entries.
Control Routing Information
This task describes how to control or prevent routing update exchange and propagation. Some reasons to control or prevent routing updates are:
- To slow or stop the update traffic on a WAN link— if we do not control update traffic on an on-demand WAN link then the link remains up. By default, RIP routing updates occur every 30 seconds.
- To prevent routing loops— if we have redundant paths or are redistributing routes into another routing domain then we may want to filter the propagation of one of the paths.
Creating a Route Policy for RIP
This task defines a route policy and shows how to attach it to an instance of a RIP process. Route policies can be used to:
- Control routes sent and received
- Control which routes are redistributed
- Control origination of the default route
Configuring RIP Authentication Keychain
All keychains need to be configured in Cisco IOS XR keychain database using configuration below are the configurations details
All keychains need to be configured in Cisco IOS XR keychain database using configuration commands described in Implementing Keychain Management module of System Security Configuration Guide for Cisco ASR 9000 Series Routers before they can be applied to a RIP interface/VRF.
RIP Show Commands
As a link state protocol, the OSPF analyzes sources such as speed, cost, and path congestion while identifying the shortest path for data. With OSPF, the router consolidates routing table by getting only required information from the neighboring devices. It never gets the entire routing table of the devices which simplifies the protocol and boosts efficiency. Typically, OSPF fits best in large enterprise networks but can be extremely effective in small networks as well.
OSPF routing protocol does require advanced knowledge about complex networks whereas RIP is much simpler. OSPF converges faster than RIP, and the protocol has better load balancing. A quick fault to using OSPF is that it doesn't scale when there are more routers added to the network and this makes it unsuitable for routing across the Internet. That will wrap up OSPF for today, though stay tuned to the Tech Corner in the next couple of weeks where we will dive more into OSPF routing protocols and how you can build them into your network!
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